Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Process of Learning a Language


Next chapter of the course included: Learner autonomy, engagement and anxiety. Here are my notes:

When teaching a language, the teacher should try to make students get engaged in learning. 
Sometimes, when a student is totally engaged, he /she achieves flow, he/she is totally immersed in the activity. 
  • Engagement: Learner is alert, pays attention, notices, reflects and asks questions, he /she is willing to participate, becomes independent, interactive and chooses how to learn depending on the learning style (leader / follower)

Teachers should help learners notice. After noticing comes "languaging", understanding and remembering.

  • What is Language Awareness approach?
It is when learners constuct concious knowledge about language.  They investigate language coninuously, they talk analyticaly about language, they explore and discover, they become independent.

  • What is languaging?
Talking about language, so that we can analyse and understand how it works. 

  • Anxiety can affect learners negatively : They can get lower grades, have impaired performance  and decreased self perception, overstudy, get thoughts of failure, it is difficult for them to absorb information and their speed and accuracy decreases, as well as their communication quality and linguistic confidence.
It is very important for a teacher to create a low anxiety environment.





Monday, February 17, 2020

Tests


As I mentioned before, I have taken up a course on Future Learn on Applied Linguistics.
This week's topic was "Tests", how they were first created, the reason why we need tests with lots of wonderful examples. 
Tests have two main functions: 
  • to keep people from danger and
  • to maintain a fair decision in selection
What does language have to do with safety though? It has to do with communication and understanding. If we don't understand what we are being told, or we cannot get our message across, sometimes this causes danger, for example if you are a pilot or working as an air controller or as a doctor. 
Tests also give us access in education, mobility and employment.
Concerning mobility, through tests, people can start a new life in another country, one of the requirements is to pass a language test. 
IELTS exams give this opportunity in English speaking countries, but sometimes this exam is not relevant, especially with immigrants. It is said that academic English (which is being tested in this particular exam) is not always relevant to someone who needs the language in order to survive every day life. 

Concerning teaching, tests influence:
  • what teachers teach
  • what learners learn
  • how teachers teach
  • how learners learn
So how should correct assessment be?
  • Learning environments should challenge students.
  • Teachers should provide feedback that enhances students' performance.
  • Learners should be encouraged to self / peer evalualuation
  • Teachers should stimulate learning
Another point that has impressed me was test resuts that can be positive, false positive or false negative and I'd like to comment on that.

If you pass an exam you are suposed to have positive results. Sometimes those results can be false negative, this means that although you have the knowledge, you do not pass the particular exam/test or false positive which means that you do not have the knowledge to pass, but you do (maybe out of luck)
The latter has made me think of the numerous English exams that exist in Greece. People strive to get this "valuable" piece of paper aka certification and sometimes the results are not accurate.
In my time as a teacher, I have come across various students, who already have the certificate, but cannot communicate in the foreign language.
Is the testing format the problem? Maybe that time has passed and they have not used the language?
Or should we teachers consider a change in our teaching method? 
This is something I (as a teacher) should think about.

Until next time

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

The language we learn today: ELF


Have you heard of the term of ELF? Short for English as a Lingua Franca, a latin term.
Lingua means a bridge language, a common language, a language that makes commucination possible between groups of people (usually people with no common language, according to Wikipedia.
In the ancient years, this language was Ancient Greek and later Latin, and the term Lingua Franca is actually Latin, so I guess Romans had understood the power of their language.

So nowadays, we all agree that this language is English. English is used everywhere, if you want to study, to travel, to work (not necessarily abroad), that's the language you have to speak. And if you look around, most people do speak English, at least in a level to communicate somehow.

English is important in the business world and we,  teachers, can see that more and more adults come to us for classes.
There are two categories of adults who need to learn or further their knowledge in English:
College Students (or potential students) who need mostly academic English (use the language to write papers, or give lectures) and
Business people who need the language to communicate. This varies depending on their field.

With academic language, things for us teacher are simpler. We have books, we know the exams, we can work on essay structure (or any kind of academic paper structure).
But in the second case things are4 different. Terminology in particular fields is not always an issu, since people do know the English terms in their field, even if hey can't speak good English.

I have come to the conclusion that when I teach ELF, grammar is not always so important, if the speaker makes his/her point clear. I focus on other things, especially on communicative approaches, culture differences, potential dialogues / conversations and presentation skills.

Research plays an important role if you teach ELF, but that's why I love it.

PS. I have to say that what I write, is my personal view, so if somebody disagrees, I'll be happy to hear their opinion.


Monday, February 10, 2020

Intercultural communication - important?

I have been interested in this subject for a long time, since my job has to do with communication in foreign languages and my goal always is to motivate students to use the language in order to study, to work, to travel.
I realised how much more important it was when I started working for a company, where we had seminars and courses about it, since we had to deal with people around the world.
Sometimes it is not always the language that makes us understood. |We have to know things about a person's culture, in order to understand their behavior and avoid misunderstandings.

English is indeed a Lingua Franca, a language that is used for international communications, in business, in studies, even if you leave in your native country, in some point you have to deal with people from somewhere else.

This time I took up a course concerning "Communicating with Diverse Audiences" by the University of Surrey and its subject is exactly what I mentioned before.
It analyses how different culture is, the different way of interaction in particular environments, trying to explain what is normal, why certain behaviors are formed and what is a cultural iceberg with lots of examples.





According to the course, language is not the only barrier in miscommunication, a lot of other factors play a role in understanding, for example our previous experience, our expectation and our knowledge and it isn't always the culture the reason for someone's behavior, but also their personality.

I can't wait to see what's next!

Learning a new language (or maybe just analysing?)


One of my very favourite hobbies, when I have the time is to look into languages and maybe also learn?
As a teacher of languages, I love to get to know more about a language, the structure, how it works and also find out more about similarities and differences between languages.

My first foreign language was English, followed by German, continuing with studying German Literature and Language at the University, following by TESOL, so I have to say, that I know prtty much about morphology, phonetics, syntax etc of these two languages, which are related believe it or not. They are both West Germanic languages - maybe a lot of years ago they were more similar with each other than they are today.
English has changed a lot, influenced by other languages, while the other West Germanic languages keep a lot more in common.

So, to get back to my language learning, after experimentin with Spanish ( I reached level B1 in CEF with great difficulty, since this was not a Germanic language) and a little bit of French (this lasted a couple of months), I decided that Latin origined languages were not for me, so I took up Dutch.
Well, yes, you guessed correctly, this is also a West Germanic language, with a great similarity to German and English. In fact, is you speak both, you can actually understand a lot of written language. Pronounciation is something you have to study and practise, but I found it really easy to understand. I can't say I am fluent, I have not dedicated a lot of time to it, but I definitely can communicate as a traveller or read simple texts and that is enough for the time being. I also found out that Flemmish and Afrikaans have  a lot of similarities, so again, I could communicate if needed.

Exploring these language, I discovered Frisian, which is a language spoken in the Netherlands. I thought it was a Dutch dialect, but it is not. It is a language with similarities from English and the other West Germanic languages. I took up a course in Future learn, of course I haven't been able to actually learn the language, but I was happy to explore the similarities and differences it has with Dutch and how it all connects.

Next on my list is Norwegian ( a North Germanic language) - I have enrolled on a Future Learn course again. Of coursee I don't expect to speak a language in 4 weeks, again it is fascinating to explore.

More to come!

Starting new course - INTRODUCTION TO APPLIED LINGUISTICS AND TESOL


Future Learn has always been a very interesting sourse of knowledge.
This time, I have chosen a course  by the University of Leicester that has to do with language and I am very excited about it!
I am going to write some notes and my impressions over here, so that I can learn better and maybe inspire you to learn something new?

So what is Applied Linguistics anyway?
Some people believe that a Linguist is someone who can speak a lot of languages or someone who is intrested in grammar and teaching a languge and the truth is that a lot of linguists are Polyglotts or teachers, but Applied linguistics is not exactly that.
Applied Linguistics has to do with how a language is produced, how it, works, how we learn it, how we use it, how we understand it.

There are a lot of different fields:

Phoneticsis the branch of linguistics that deals with the sounds of speech and their production, combination, description, and representation by written symbols. 

Phonologythe science of speech sounds including especially the history and theory of sound changes in a language or in two or more related languages.


Morphologya study and description of word formation (such as inflection, derivation, and compounding) in language

Syntax: the way in which linguistic elements (such as words) are put together to form constituents (such as phrases or clauses)

Semantics: The study of meanings

Pragmaticsa branch of semiotics that deals with the relation between signs or linguistic expressions and their users

or even more specialized like:

Psycholinguistics: The study of psycology and languages

Historical linguistics: The study of language change over time

Comparative linguistics: Comparison of languages, their similarities and differences

Forensic linguistics: The study of language in law

Clinical linguistics: The study of language in medical application

Social linguistics: the study of language in social issues like  for example injustice

Intercultural linguistics: The study of language in communication between cultures

Another issue that was mentioned in the course is how language differs between men and women - i.g women tend to be more verbal than men.

More terms were mentions, like English as a Lingua Franca (and how it has become an international language particularly in the business world) and how language learning has develped (teaching methods and materials), and the Common Eurpean Framework and the levels of language learning.

Can't wait to see what's next!
To be continued!







Monday, December 9, 2019

Weird celebrations in the classroom? Why not? TeachingEnglish blog


Celebrations and language teaching – does it match?
Usually when you are in the classroom, you don’t have the time to organize parties or theme related events, since you have to cover the material before the end of the school year.
With the exception of Christmas and Halloween, there is no other room for any kind of celebrations. Or is there?
Since our classes have become more multicultural, sometimes we have kids from all over the world; a special celebration for Christmas for example is not always suitable.
So how about organizing weird day celebrations or events that would make children happy and learn at the same time? Here are some ideas I have used over the years:
• Children’s Dental Health Month (February): Let’s talk about teeth! You can even start a project with your students. Depending on the age, read / tell them a story about teeth and/or a tooth fairy. Have students draw posters or storybooks. They can even act the story out. Ask them about their morning / evening routines. Again they can draw their eating and hygiene routines. What is good or bad for our teeth? Maybe a dentist could come to class to talk to them about dental hygiene. The older students can write a report about it (in English of course)
• Free Comic book day. (May 4th) Students (intermediate level or higher) bring a comic book and present it in class. Another alternative is to create a comic book in class. Divide the class into groups. One group writes the story while the other draws. You can even use a computer and make a photo comic collage.
• Environmental Day (June 5th) – Hug a Tree day (May 16th) Take your class outside to a park and talk about the environment. Talk about trees. What little steps can we take to save it from pollution? Make lists to hang on your class walls. Talk about recycling. Clean a park or an area around your school. (Parents can help as well)
• Museum day (May 18th) Organize a school trip to a nearby museum. Give kids a questionnaire in English and divide them into groups. The students not only have to find the answers to the questions going around the museum, but they also have to do it in English (understand. translate) – if you can’t take the students outside the school, this can also become an internet project.
• Creativity day (April 21st) Make an art exhibition. Students can draw, make a sculpture, take a picture and write the story behind it (in English)
I am sure that there are wonderful strange celebrations around the world and these were only some ideas. I’d be happy to hear your feedback if you try out any of these.